Long-Term Urinary Sequelae Following
Iodine Prostate Brachytherapy
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PURPOSE: We describe long-term urinary function in men treated with 125iodine brachytherapy without supplemental beam irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 484 men with favorable risk prostate cancer received 125I prostate brachytherapy with a followup ranging from 12 to 93 months (median 41). Prior hormonal therapy (2 to 6 months) was used in 14% of patients to reduce prostate size. Urinary function was assessed before implant by the International Prostate Symptom Score and a voiding study, and in followup by International Prostate Symptom Score. Urinary retention and catheterization, urgency and urge incontinence, persistently increased International Prostate Symptom Score, stricture, and the need for surgical intervention are reported. RESULTS: Beyond 1 year 73.3% of men had no significant urinary sequelae. A flare in the International Prostate Symptom Score to greater than 15 and at least 5 points above baseline occurred in 23%, lasting a median of 3 months. Symptoms of retention requiring catheterization or surgical intervention were seen in 3.4% (1.7% stricture, 0.4% transurethral resection of the prostate, 2.7% catheter). Of the 13 men requiring catheterization at any time after 1 year, 5 (1% of total) remain dependent on clean intermittent catheterization. Median duration of catheter use for those with resolution is 4.5 months. Moderate to severe urinary urgency occurred in 6.4% of patients but it was unresponsive to anticholinergics in only 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: In this group 27% of men experienced late urinary morbidity following 125I prostate brachytherapy. Rates may vary according to technique and selection factors. The majority responded well to medical or surgical intervention, with 0.8% persistent urgency, and 1% catheter dependence.
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