Measurement of Intracellular Oxygen Concentration During Photodynamic Therapyin vitro
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A technique is introduced that monitors the depletion of intracellular ground state oxygen concentration ([(3)O(2)]) during photodynamic therapy of Mat-LyLu cell monolayers and cell suspensions. The photosensitizer Pd(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (PdT790) is used to manipulate and indicate intracellular [(3)O(2)] in both of the in vitro models. The Stern-Volmer relationship for PdT790 phosphorescence was characterized in suspensions by flowing nitrogen over the suspension while short pulses of 405 nm light were used to excite the sensitizer. The bleaching of sensitizer and the oxygen consumption rate were also measured during continuous exposure of the cell suspension to the 405 nm laser. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was conducted in both cell suspensions and in cell monolayers under different treatment conditions while the phosphorescence signal was acquired. The intracellular [(3)O(2)] during PDT was calculated by using the measured Stern-Volmer relationship and correcting for sensitizer photobleaching. In addition, the amount of oxygen that was consumed during the treatments was calculated. It was found that even at large oxygen consumption rates, cells remain well oxygenated during PDT of cell suspensions. For monolayer treatments, it was found that intracellular [(3)O(2)] is rapidly depleted over the course of PDT.
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