Subjective Responses to Alcohol Consumption as Endophenotypes: Advancing Behavioral Genetics in Etiological and Treatment Models of Alcoholism
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Individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol consumption represent genetically mediated biobehavioral mechanisms of alcoholism risk (i.e., endophenotype). The objective of this review is three-fold: (1) to provide a critical review the literature on subjective response to alcohol and to discuss the rationale for its conceptualization as an endophenotype for alcoholism; (2) to examine the literature on the neurobiological substrates and associated genetic factors subserving individual differences in subjective response to alcohol; and (3) to discuss the treatment implications of this approach and to propose a framework for conceptualizing, and systematically integrating, endophenotypes into alcoholism treatment.
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