The Play Activity Questionnaire: A parent report measure of children's play preferences
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Three studies describe the development and validation of the Play Activity Questionnaire (PQ), a parent report measure of children's play preferences. In Study 1, the 15-item PQ was completed by parents of 239 6- to 8-year-old children, and exploratory factor analysis revealed four play factors: Active and Adventurous, Athletic, Rough-and-Tumble, and Quiet. In Study 2, the factor structure was replicated with PQ data on 203 children of a broader age range (4 to 12 years). The play factors accounted for 65.7% of the variance. Boys' scores exceeded girls' scores on the Athletic and Rough-and-Tumble play factors. Girls' scores exceeded boys' scores on the Quiet play factor. Sex differences were not observed on the Active and Adventurous play factor. Interparent agreement was moderately high, and PQ factor scores were unrelated to social class or nationality. Individual factor scores showed moderate to high stability over 5 months. Validity of the play factors was examined in Study 3 by relating factor scores to measures of activity level, aggression, and sex-typed play. Play factor scores were associated with several of these measures, suggesting that the PQ is a valid measure of children's play behavior with potential applications in the fields of developmental psychopathology and psychoneuroendocrinology, and in studies of normal play and sex-role development.
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