Validation of the OPEN-CLEAN Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Perforation Score in a Multicenter Registry
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Coronary artery perforation is one of the most common and feared complications of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the utility of the recently presented OPEN-CLEAN (Coronary artery bypass graft, Length of occlusion, Ejection fraction, Age, calcificatioN) perforation score in an independent multicenter CTO PCI dataset. Of the 2,270 patients who underwent CTO PCI at 7 centers, 150 (6.6%) suffered coronary artery perforation. Patients with perforations were older (69 ± 10 vs 65 ± 10, p <0.001), more likely to be women (89% vs 82%, p = 0.010), more likely to have history of previous coronary artery bypass graft (38% vs 20%, p <0.001), and unfavorable angiographic characteristics such as blunt stump (64% vs 42%, p <0.001), proximal cap ambiguity (51% vs 33%, p <0.001), and moderate-severe calcification (57% vs 43%, p = 0.001). Technical success was lower in patients with perforations (69% vs 85%, p <0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the OPEN-CLEAN perforation risk model was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.79), with good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.72). We found that the CTO PCI perforation risk increased with higher OPEN-CLEAN scores: 3.5% (score 0 to 1), 3.1% (score 2), 5.3% (score 3), 7.1% (score 4), 11.5% (score 5), 19.8% (score 6 to 7). In conclusion, given its good performance and ease of preprocedural calculation, the OPEN-CLEAN perforation score appears to be useful for quantifying the perforation risk for patients who underwent CTO PCI.