Human Staufen (hStau), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein that is involved in mRNA transport, is incorporated in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in other retroviruses, including HIV-2 and Moloney murine leukemia virus. Sucrose and Optiprep gradient analyses reveal cosedimentation of hStau with purified HIV-1, while subtilisin assays demonstrate that it is internalized. hStau incorporation in HIV-1 is selective, is dependent on an intact functional dsRNA-binding domain, and quantitatively correlates with levels of encapsidated HIV-1 genomic RNA. By coimmunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we demonstrate that hStau is associated with HIV-1 genomic RNA in HIV-1-expressing cells and purified virus. Overexpression of hStau enhances virion incorporation levels, and a corresponding, threefold increase in HIV-1 genomic RNA encapsidation levels. This coordinated increase in hStau and genomic RNA packaging had a significant negative effect on viral infectivity. This study is the first to describe hStau within HIV-1 particles and provides evidence that hStau binds HIV-1 genomic RNA, indicating that it may be implicated in retroviral genome selection and packaging into assembling virions.