- The association between T-cell large granular lymphocytes (T-LGL) and ITP is uncertain. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of T-LGL in patients with ITP and to describe its association with ITP disease severity. We analyzed flow cytometry results for T-LGL (using a threshold of 0.3 x109 or greater cells/L) or positive T-cell receptor clonality in patients with ITP and nonimmune thrombocytopenia. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the association between T-LGL and ITP, response to ITP treatments (rituximab and splenectomy) and response to T-LGL treatment. Among ITP patients, 14.3% (13/91) had evidence of a T-LGL population compared to 10.3% (3/29) of patients with non-immune thrombocytopenia. ITP patients with T-LGL had lower nadir platelet counts (2 vs. 47 × 109/L) and received more ITP treatments (median 6 vs. 3) than ITP patients without T-LGL. Response to rituximab was observed in 14.3% (1/7) of ITP patients with T-LGL and 54.5% (6/11) without T-LGL. Response to splenectomy was observed in 25% (2/8) with T-LGL and 56.2% (9/16) without T-LGL. Four patients with ITP and T-LGL received treatment for T-LGL with methotrexate; none had an improvement in platelet count levels. T-LGL may appear in patients with ITP, and the meaning of this finding remains unclear; however, for some patients, the presence of abnormal T-LGL may indicate a more severe form of ITP that tends to be less responsive to therapy. In this cohort, treatment of T-LGL with methotrexate did not improve platelet counts in the few patients who were treated.