Analysis of γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Content of Protein, Urine, and Plasma by Capillary Electrophoresis and Laser-Induced Fluorescence
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When the properties of an analyte are known, the separation system can be designed to make the analyte of interest migrate at either a much faster or a much slower velocity compared to other molecules in the sample matrix. A simple and sensitive method to analyze the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) content of protein, urine, and plasma was developed using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The separation method is designed according to the specific properties of three amino acids of interest. The number of Gla residues from three vitamin K-dependent proteins were estimated by quantifying the amount of fluorescein thiocarbamyl derivative of Gla after alkaline hydrolysis and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling. Human prothrombin, blood coagulation factor X, and bovine osteocalcin were calculated to have 10.0 +/- 0.7, 11.0 +/- 0.6, and 2.1 +/- 0.1 Gla residues per mole of protein, respectively, which agreed well with amino acid sequencing data. The analysis of free Gla content in urine and plasma was also demonstrated by this method. It was demonstrated that submicrograms of protein can be characterized by CE-LIF.