Contemporary Management and Control of Uncomplicated Hypertension in Canada: Insight From the Primary Care Audit of Global Risk Management (PARADIGM) Study Academic Article uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: Although clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension exist in Canada, the rate of contemporary blood pressure (BP) control remains unclear. METHODS: In the Primary Care Audit of Global Risk Management (PARADIGM) study, 3015 healthy, middle-aged Canadians, free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes were evaluated. In this analysis, we characterized the CVD risk factors, treatment patterns, and BP control rates in subjects with uncomplicated hypertension. RESULTS: A total of 917 subjects (30.4%) had a diagnosis of hypertension. The median age was 59 ± 8 years. The mean treated systolic/diastolic BP were 134 ± 14 mm Hg/82 ± 9 mm Hg, respectively. CVD risk factors included past/current smoking (35.9%), abdominal obesity (62.5%), and dyslipidemia (59.4%). Using the Framingham Risk Score, 20.4%, 41.0%, and 38.5% of the subjects were at low, intermediate, and high risk, respectively. Of the 88% with treated hypertension, 46.9%, 38.7%, and 14.3% received 1, 2, or ≥3 drugs, respectively. The rate of BP control was 57.4% (systolic BP < 140 and diastolic BP < 90 mm Hg). The rate of BP control was lower in patients prescribed diuretic monotherapy (53.2%) vs those who received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy (66.5%; P < 0.01). Importantly, BP control deteriorated with increasing Framingham Risk Score, and was lower in patients with metabolic syndrome vs those without (P < 0.00001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: PARADIGM demonstrated that CVD risk factors are prevalent in Canadians with uncomplicated hypertension. BP control was modest (57.4%) and was lowest in patients prescribed diuretic monotherapy and in those at highest CVD risk. Despite the success of national hypertension strategies, enhanced efforts are warranted to improve BP control in Canada.


  • Gupta, Milan
  • Szmitko, Paul
  • Singh, Narendra
  • Tsigoulis, Michelle
  • Kajil, Mahesh
  • Stone, James

publication date

  • May 2015

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