The Nature of the Supramolecular Association of 1,2,5-Chalcogenadiazoles
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Organochalcogen-nitrogen heterocycles such as the 1,2,5-chalcogenadiazoles have a distinct tendency to establish intermolecular links in the solid state through secondary bonding interactions E...N (E = S, Se, Te). The association of these molecules was examined in detail using relativistic density functional theory. Although there is an important electrostatic component, the interaction between these molecules is dominated by contributions arising from orbital mixing, which can be interpreted as the donation of a nitrogen lone pair into the chalcogen-centered antibonding orbitals. Because of its more polar character and lower-lying antibonding orbitals, the tellurium derivatives possess the strongest association energies; these are so large that the binding strength is comparable to that of some hydrogen bonds. In the absence of steric constraints, telluradiazoles associate in a coplanar fashion forming ribbon polymers. However, bulky susbstituents could be used to direct the formation of either helical chains or discrete dimers. In addition to its strength, the coplanar dimer is characterized by being rigid, yet no activation barrier is expected for the association/dissociation process. These attributes strongly indicate that tellurium-nitrogen heterocycles have great potential as building blocks in supramolecular architecture.
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