Preparation and Evaluation of Carborane Analogues of Tamoxifen
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A stereoselective synthesis of closo carborane analogues of tamoxifen was developed where the products represent a new approach to developing metabolically robust SERMs. The A-ring found in the backbone of tamoxifen was replaced with an ortho carborane cluster; the product was determined to be the desired Z isomer, which showed superior chemical stability to tamoxifen both in solution and in the solid state. By use of microwave heating, it was possible to convert some of the Z carborane tamoxifen analogue to the corresponding E isomer. Cell growth assays using both isomers and a carborane that is known to target the ER were conducted using estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative human breast cancer cells with and without the presence of estradiol (E2). The Z carborane isomer was able to inhibit cell proliferation better than tamoxifen in an E2 free environment, while the E isomer inhibited cell growth better than tamoxifen when E2 was present.
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