In vivoinvestigation of a new109Cd γ-ray induced K-XRF bone lead measurement system
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A new 109Cd gamma-ray induced K-XRF bone lead measurement system using an array of four detectors has been developed. Previous results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and experiments with phantoms predicted that it would be about three times more sensitive than the conventional system, albeit using a more active source. A dosimetry study has been performed for this system and it demonstrated that the dose delivered to the measured individuals is acceptable even for 5-year-old children. Approval to apply this system to human studies has been received from the Research Ethics Board. In this study, 20 adult volunteers, 10 male, 10 female, were recruited to have their tibia measured with both the conventional system and the new system. The result confirmed the improvement predicted by the MC simulations and the in vitro measurements. Two other interesting points were discovered from the data. One is that the data from the new system showed a significant positive correlation between age and tibia lead concentration, while the data from the conventional system do not. The other is that 85% of the tibia lead concentrations were under the minimum detection limit when measured by the conventional system, and the proportion reduced to 50% when measured by the new system.
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