Inorganic and organic anion transport by insect renal epithelia
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Insect renal organs typically exhibit high rates of transport of inorganic and organic anions, and therefore provide useful models for the study of epithelial anion transport and its control. Isolated Malpighian tubules of some species secrete a volume of iso-osmotic fluid equal to their own volume in 10-15 s, which means that cellular Cl(-) content is exchanged every 3-5 s. Anion transport can also be achieved against extreme thermodynamic gradients. The concentration of K(+) and Cl(-) in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules of some desert beetles approaches or exceeds saturation. A basolateral Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter plays an important role in vectorial ion transport in Malpighian tubules of many species, but there is also evidence for coupling of Cl(-) transport to the movement of a single cationic species (Na(+) or K(+)). Although an apical vacuolar H(+)-ATPase plays a primary role in energizing transepithelial secretion of chloride via channels or cotransporters in the secretory segment of the Malpighian tubule, several different ATPases have been implicated in reabsorption of Cl(-) by the lower Malpighian tubule or hindgut. Chloride transport is known to be controlled by several neuropeptides, amines and intracellular second messengers. Insect renal epithelia are also important in excretion of potentially toxic organic anions, and the transporters involved may play a role in resistance to insecticides of natural or anthropogenic origin.
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