Effects of acute or chronic exposure to dietary organic anions on secretion of methotrexate and salicylate by Malpighian tubules ofDrosophila melanogasterlarvae
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The effects of dietary exposure to organic anions on the physiology of isolated Malpighian tubules and on tubule gene expression were examined using larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Acute (24 h) or chronic (7 d) exposure to type I organic anions (fluorescein or salicylate) was associated with increased fluid secretion rates and increased fluxes of both salicylate and the type II organic anion methotrexate. By contrast, chronic exposure to dietary methotrexate was associated with increased fluid secretion rate and increased flux of methotrexate, but not salicylate. Exposure to methotrexate in the diet resulted in increases in the expression of a multidrug efflux transporter gene (MET; CG30344) in the Malpighian tubules. There were also increases in expression of genes for either a Drosophila multidrug resistance-associated protein (dMRP; CG6214) or an organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP; CG3380), depending on the concentration of methotrexate in the diet. Exposure to salicylate in the diet was associated with an increase in expression of dMRP and with decreases of MET and OATP. Exposure to dietary salicylate or methotrexate was also associated with different patterns of expression of heat shock protein genes. The results suggest that exposure to specific type I or type II organic anions has multiple effects and results not only in increased organic anion transport but also in increased rates of inorganic ion transport, which drives osmotically-obliged fluid secretion. Increased fluid secretion may enhance secretion of organic anions by eliminating diffusive backflux from the tubule lumen to the hemolymph.
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