Transposon Tn5 encodes streptomycin resistance in addition to kanamycin-neomycin resistance. This resistance was not detectable in Escherichia coli but was efficiently expressed in Rhizobium meliloti and certain other strains. By analysis of cloned Tn5 restriction endonuclease fragments, the streptomycin resistance (str) gene was located in the right-hand side of the central region as the transposon is conventionally drawn. Transcription of str appeared to originate at pL, the promoter for the neo gene (neomycin phosphotransferase type II). Expression of streptomycin resistance in E. coli was obtained after cloning of the neo-str region downstream of a strong E. coli promoter. A construct in which PL was deleted also showed differential expression of streptomycin resistance.