Toward a redefinition of implicit memory: Process dissociations following elaborative processing and self-generation.
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Does conceptual processing affect unconscious uses of memory? We used a process-dissociation procedure to separate automatic (unconscious) and consciously controlled uses of memory in a stem-completion task. Contrary to results from indirect test conditions, estimates derived from our procedure showed no effect of self-generation and no differential effect of semantic and nonsemantic study conditions on automatic uses of memory. These results provide evidence that (a) indirect tests are often contaminated by conscious uses of memory and (b) stem completion is highly dependent on prior perceptual (and perhaps lexical) processing. The experiments demonstrate the advantages of using process-dissociation procedures over comparisons between direct and indirect tests.
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