Various fields within biomedical engineering have been afforded rapid scientific advancement through the incorporation of microfluidics. As literature surrounding biological systems become more comprehensive and many microfluidic platforms show potential for commercialization, the development of representative fluidic systems has become more intricate. This has brought increased scrutiny of the material properties of microfluidic substrates. Thermoplastics have been highlighted as a promising material, given their material adaptability and commercial compatibility. This review provides a comprehensive discussion surrounding recent developments pertaining to thermoplastic microfluidic device fabrication. Existing and emerging approaches related to both microchannel fabrication and device assembly are highlighted, with consideration toward how specific approaches induce physical and/or chemical properties that are optimally suited for relevant real-world applications.