Modeling the Health and Economic Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China From 2020 to 2039: A Simulation Study
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OBJECTIVES: Despite a growing prevalence of respiratory diseases in recent decades in China, limited evidence is available on the health and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We estimated the 20-year health and economic burden of COPD in China from 2020 to 2039. METHODS: We created a probabilistic dynamic open-cohort Markov model of COPD for the Chinese population aged ≥40 years. Projections of population growth and urbanization rates were obtained from the United Nations Population Division. Other parameter inputs including smoking prevalence, COPD prevalence and severity distributions, disease-related costs, and utility weights were obtained from the most recent published literature. We modeled number of COPD patients, excess mortality due to COPD, exacerbations, COPD-attributable losses of quality-adjusted life-years, and direct and indirect COPD costs over the 20 years. RESULTS: The number of COPD patients was projected to increase from 88.3 million in 2020 to 103.3 million in 2039. The projected total losses of quality-adjusted life-years and the excess mortality due to COPD were, respectively, estimated to be 253.6 million and 3.9 million over the 20 years. The projected 20-year total discounted direct and indirect costs of COPD were, respectively, $3.1 trillion and $360.5 billion. The projected health and economic burden was higher in males and urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: COPD is projected to inflict a substantial burden to the society and the health care system in China. Effective strategies for prevention and early management of COPD are needed to mitigate the forthcoming disease burden.
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