There is a need to better understand the positioning of biologic therapies for long-term outcomes in biologic-naïve Crohn’s disease (CD). We assessed the comparative effectiveness of infliximab and ustekinumab among induction responders for 1-year outcomes.
This post hoc analysis included data from 220 biologic-naïve CD participants with response to induction therapy from 2 clinical trial programs. Participants achieving 1-year clinical remission (CR) (Crohn’s disease activity index <150), corticosteroid-free CR, normalization of fecal calprotectin (FC), endoscopic response (Simple Endoscopic Score for CD decrease ≥50% from baseline), and endoscopic remission (ER) (Simple Endoscopic Score for CD <3) were compared. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of achieving the outcomes adjusted for confounders. Propensity score matching created a cohort with similar distribution of baseline covariates.
One-year CR and corticosteroid-free CR rates were similar between infliximab-treated and ustekinumab-treated patients (CR, 66 of 110 [60.0%] vs 63 of 110 [57.3%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.15; 95% CI, 0.67-1.98; P = .681; corticosteroid-free CR, 11 of 28 (39.3%) vs 27 of 51 [52.9%]; aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.23-1.47; P = .251). Compared with ustekinumab-treated patients, infliximab-treated participants were more likely to achieve 1-year endoscopic response (43 of 92 [46.7%] vs 6 of 30 [20.0%], aOR, 3.59; 95% CI, 1.34-9.66; P = .011) and ER (31 of 92 [33.7%] vs 4 of 30 [13.3%]; aOR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.07-10.49; P = .038). Among patients with FC ≥250 mg/kg at baseline, normalization (<250 mg/kg) at 1-year was similar between groups. Similar results were observed within the propensity matched population for all analyses.
Treatment with infliximab and ustekinumab among induction responders achieved 1-year CR with similar efficacy, but infliximab may confer greater benefit for endoscopic outcomes. Findings should be interpreted with caution as our analyses were unpowered.