Sequences in E1A proteins of human adenovirus 5 required for cell transformation, repression of a transcriptional enhancer, and induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen
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A range of deletion and other mutants in the coding region of the E1A gene of Ad5 has been assayed for transformation of baby rat kidney (BRK) cells in cooperation with ras, repression of the SV40 enhancer, and induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Transformation efficiency was drastically reduced by deletion of residues 4-25, 36-60, or 111-138 in exon 1 of the 289 residue (289R) and 243R E1A proteins. Deletion of other residues in exon 1 had little effect. With mutants in the region unique to the 289R protein, and in exon 2, the only effect on transformation seemed to be an increased tendency of mutant transformants, compared to wt, to migrate to form secondary foci. Repression assays, performed with E1A plasmids producing only the 243R protein, showed that deletion of residues 4-25 or 36-60 inhibited repression completely. Deletion of residues 128-138 reduced repression, but deletions elsewhere in exon 1 had little effect. Deletion of residues 188-204 in exon 2 reduced repression slightly, and deletion of all of exon 2 reduced it to about one-half. It is concluded that for transformation, there are two functional domains in E1A proteins, both in exon 1, both involved in binding different cellular proteins, and both probably concerned with different transforming functions. One of these domains, involving residues 4-25 and 36-60, also functions in repression, but the role of the second in repression is much less critical. All of the deletion mutants in exon 1 induced PCNA synthesis in BRK cells. This result, together with previously published work, suggests that the active site for PCNA induction either involves residues 61-69 or 82-85 in exon 1, which have not been deleted, or it does not depend on any single limited region of the E1A proteins.
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