Evaluation of the effect of reactive sulfide on the acute toxicity of silver (I) toDaphnia magna. Part 1: Description of the chemical system
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Experiments were designed to assess the potential protective effect of the presence of sulfide against the acute (48-h) toxicity of silver(I) to Daphnia magna. Tests were conducted in borosilicate glass beakers (250 ml) in moderately hard synthetic water. Toxicity solutions were replaced after 24 h by static renewal method. This paper describes the chemical system, and the acute toxicity results are presented in a companion paper. Sulfide was below detection limit (<5 nM) in controls with no sulfide added. Sulfide, added as zinc sulfide clusters at approximately 35- or approximately 350-nM concentration, dropped in concentration to approximately 25 and 250 nM, respectively, over the 24-h period of measurements. Silver also decreased in concentration during the experiment (up to 59%), and the rate of loss was greater in the absence of sulfide compared with the presence of sulfide. A filtration experiment indicated a 1:1 binding ratio of silver to sulfide and a conditional stability constant for the Ag(I)-zinc sulfide complex of log K' = 8.9. The losses of sulfide and silver during the experiments highlighted the need for regular monitoring of the important chemical components of the system, even during short (48-h) toxicity tests.
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