Histoplasmosis and Kidney Disease in Patients with AIDS
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Renal disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often presents with significant proteinuria and progressive renal failure; focal glomerulosclerosis is the most common renal pathology identified. To our knowledge, we report the first case of nephrotic-range proteinuria and preserved renal function in an HIV-infected patient in association with disseminated histoplasmosis. The initial level of proteinuria was 12.5 g/24 h. The patient developed a concomitant lesion on his neck, which was biopsied and identified as Histoplasma capsulatum by fungal stains and culture. The serum CF titer of antibody against yeast antigens of H. capsulatum was 1:8. The level of serum albumin decreased to 2.0 g/dL, and the level of serum cholesterol increased to 284 mg/dL. Immunohistochemical staining of renal biopsy tissue demonstrated immune complexes within the mesangium; H. capsulatum antigen was also demonstrated in the mesangium. Therapy with oral itraconazole resulted in marked clinical improvement. The findings in this case emphasize the need to rule out treatable causes of the nephrotic syndrome in AIDS, especially in cases of immune-complex glomerulonephritis.
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