It is unknown whether Asian and non-Asian patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease derive similar benefits from long-term antithrombotic therapy.
Methods and results
In patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD) enrolled in The Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies trial, the effects of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. plus aspirin 100 mg o.d. were compared with those of aspirin 100 mg o.d. in Asian vs. non-Asian patients (race was self-identified). Asians (n = 4269) vs. non-Asians (n = 23 126) had similar rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) (4.85% vs. 4.83%, P = 0.30) and modified International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major bleeding (2.72% vs. 2.58%, P = 0.22), but higher rates of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) (0.63% vs. 0.29%, P = 0.01) and minor bleeding (13.61% vs. 6.49%, P < 0.001). In Asians vs. non-Asians, the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produced consistent reductions in MACE [Asians: hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45–0.90; non-Asians: HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67–0.90; P(heterogeneity) = 0.29], increases in modified ISTH major bleeding (Asians: HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.40–3.58; non-Asians: HR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.30–1.97; P = 0.20), and net clinical outcome (Asians: HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.56–1.05; non-Asians: HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70–0.93, P = 0.78), but borderline higher rates of ICH (Asians: HR: 3.50, 95% CI: 0.98–12.56; non-Asians: HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.53; P = 0.04).
Asian compared with non-Asian patients with chronic CAD and/or PAD have higher rates of ICH and minor bleeding. The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin vs. aspirin alone produces similar effects for MACE, modified ISTH major bleeding, and net clinical outcome but may be associated with higher rates of ICH in Asian patients.