Social participation interventions targeting relational outcomes for young people with physical and developmental disabilities: an umbrella review and narrative synthesis
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PURPOSE: To synthesize knowledge about social participation interventions targeting relational outcomes for young people with physical and developmental disabilities. METHOD: An umbrella review with a narrative synthesis was conducted to integrate findings of review articles examining social participation interventions targeting relational outcomes (e.g., peer interaction and friendships). Six databases were searched to identify reviews published between 2010 and 2021. RESULTS: Five reviews were identified, examining participation interventions, social/community integration interventions, recreational sport programs, online peer mentorship programs, and augmentative and alternative communication interventions to promote social interaction with peers. Interventions associated with improvements in relational outcomes included group-based programs, programs involving personalized goals, arts-based programs, and multi-component social communication interventions. Recommendations for future research included better description of interventions to identify active ingredients and key mechanisms, measurement of participants' experiences, and the need for interventions to be aligned with the nature of the outcomes examined. Preliminary intervention principles are proposed to guide the design of social participation interventions: individualizing, contextualizing, and immersion in social settings. CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple pathways by which to influence the relational outcomes of young people with disabilities. There are implications for the design of social participation interventions based on an ecological/experiential and relational perspective. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONImprovements in relational outcomes are associated with participation in group-based programs, programs involving personalized goals, arts-based programs, and multi-component social communication interventions.Three evidence-informed principles can help guide the design of social participation interventions: (1) personalizing, (2) contextualizing, and (3) immersion in social settings.Greater attention to aligning the nature of intervention with desired outcomes is needed to more effectively measure and promote relational outcomes.
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