### abstract

- We revisit general arguments for the absence of exact continuous global symmetries in string compactifications and extend them to D-brane models. We elucidate the various ways approximate continuous global symmetries arise in the 4-dimensional effective action. In addition to two familiar methods - axionic Peccei-Quinn symmetries and remnant global abelian symmetries from Green-Schwarz gauge symmetry breaking - we identify new ways to generate approximate continuous global symmetries. Two methods stand out, both of which occur for local brane constructions within the LARGE volume scenario of moduli stabilisation. The first is the generic existence of continuous non-abelian global symmetries associated with local Calabi-Yau isometries. These symmetries are exact in the non-compact limit and are spontaneously broken by the LARGE volume, with breaking effects having phenomenologically interesting sizes \sim 0.01 for plausible choices for underlying parameters. Such approximate flavour symmetries are phenomenologically attractive and may allow the fermion mass hierarchies to be connected to the electroweak hierarchy via the large volume. The second is the possible existence of new hyper-weak gauge interactions under which Standard Model matter is charged, with \alpha_{HW} \sim 10^{-9}. Such groups arise from branes wrapping bulk cycles and intersecting the local (resolved) singularity on which the Standard Model is supported. We discuss experimental bounds for these new gauge bosons and their interactions with the Standard Model particles.