A superbubble feedback model for galaxy simulations
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We present a new stellar feedback model that reproduces superbubbles.
Superbubbles from clustered young stars evolve quite differently to individual
supernovae and are substantially more efficient at generating gas motions. The
essential new components of the model are thermal conduction, sub-grid
evaporation and a sub-grid multi-phase treatment for cases where the simulation
mass resolution is insufficient to model the early stages of the superbubble.
The multi-phase stage is short compared to superbubble lifetimes. Thermal
conduction physically regulates the hot gas mass without requiring a free
parameter. Accurately following the hot component naturally avoids overcooling.
Prior approaches tend to heat too much mass, leaving the hot ISM below $10^6$ K
and susceptible to rapid cooling unless ad-hoc fixes were used. The hot phase
also allows feedback energy to correctly accumulate from multiple, clustered
sources, including stellar winds and supernovae.
We employ high-resolution simulations of a single star cluster to show the
model is insensitive to numerical resolution, unresolved ISM structure and
suppression of conduction by magnetic fields. We also simulate a Milky Way
analog and a dwarf galaxy. Both galaxies show regulated star formation and
produce strong outflows.
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