COVID-19 related distress in the Swedish population: Validation of the Swedish version of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) Academic Article uri icon

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  • Background The COVID Stress Scales (CSS) assess health- and contamination-related distress in the face of a medical outbreak like the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Though the CSS is translated into 21 languages, it has not been validated in a Swedish national sample. Aim Our general objective is to provide a translation, replication, and validation of the CSS and test its convergent- and discriminant validity in relation to anxiety, health anxiety, depression, and stress in the general Swedish population. We also present latent psychometric properties by modelling based on item response theory. Methods Participants consisted of 3044 Swedish adults (> 18 years) from a pre-stratified (gender, age, and education) sample from The Swedish Citizen Panel. Mental health status was assessed by validated instruments, including the CSS, PHQ-4, SHAI-14, and PSS-10. Results Results indicate that our Swedish translation of CSS has good psychometric properties and consists of 5 correlated factors. Discussion The CSS is useful either as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct using the CSS scales to measure key facets of pandemic-related stress. Conclusions The findings support the cross-cultural validity of the CSS and its potential utility in understanding many of the emotional challenges posed by the current and future pandemics.


  • Carlander, Anders
  • Lekander, Mats
  • Asmundson, Gordon JG
  • Taylor, S. Martin
  • Olofsson Bagge, Roger
  • Lindqvist Bagge, Ann-Sophie

publication date

  • January 2022