<b><i>Objectives:</i></b> The present review aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with and without a supplementary scleral buckle (SB) for management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The authors searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL to identify RCTs in English that compared PPV with and without supplemental SB. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool. We present risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated using random-effects meta-analyses. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We identified 6 RCTs involving 705 eyes. Primary reattachment (6 studies, 345 eyes PPV, 324 eyes PPV + SB; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93–1.06, <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 0%, <i>p</i> = 0.78) and final anatomic success rates (4 studies, 272 eyes PPV, 267 eyes PPV + SB; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98–1.02, <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 0%, <i>p</i> = 0.89) were similar between the 2 groups. Postoperative visual acuity improvement (5 studies, 244 eyes PPV, 222 eyes PPV + SB; MD 6.09 letters, 95% CI -0.47–12.64, <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 69%, <i>p</i> = 0.07) and frequency of adverse events (6 studies, 1,294 observations PPV, 1,221 observations PPV + SB; RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.57–1.01, <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 25%, <i>p</i> = 0.06) likewise did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Low-certainty evidence from RCTs did not demonstrate a benefit in placement of a supplemental SB during vitrectomy for management of RRD in the current analysis. Additional high-quality trials are needed to provide more precise estimates of the effect.