Recalibrated estimates of non-bacteremic and bacteremic pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized Canadian adults from 2010 to 2017 with addition of an extended spectrum serotype-specific urine antigen detection assay
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OBJECTIVE(S): In the context of age- and risk-based pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in Canada, this study presents updated data from active surveillance of pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (pCAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in hospitalized adults from 2010 to 2017. METHODS: S. pneumoniae was detected using culture (blood and sputum), and urine antigen detection (UAD). Serotyping was performed with Quellung, PCR, or using the PCV13- and PPV23 (non-PCV13)-specific UADs. Laboratory results, demographic, and outcome data were categorized by age (16-49, 50-64, and 65 + ) and by disease [non-bacteremic pCAP, bacteremic pCAP, and IPD(non-CAP)]. RESULTS: 11,129 CAP cases and 216 cases of IPD (non-CAP) were identified. Laboratory testing for S. pneumoniae was performed in 8912 CAP cases, identifying 1264 (14.2%) as pCAP. Of pCAP cases, 811 (64.1%) were non-bacteremic and 455 (35.9%) were bacteremic. Adults 65 + years represented 54.5% of non-bacteremic pCAP, 41.4% of bacteremic pCAP, and 48.6% of IPD cases. Adults 50-64 years contributed 30.3%, 33.1%, and 29.9%, respectively. In pCAP, PCV13 serotypes declined between 2010 and 2014 due to declines in serotypes 7F and 19A, then plateaued from 2015 to 2017 with persistence of serotype 3. In later study years, non-bacteremic pCAP was predominant, and PPV23 (non-PCV13) serotypes increased from 2015 to 2017, with serotypes 22F, 11A, and 9 N being most frequently identified. Compared to non-pCAP, pCAP cases were more likely to be admitted to intensive care units and require mechanical ventilation. These outcomes and mortality were more common in bacteremic pCAP and IPD, versus non-bacteremic pCAP. CONCLUSION(S): Along with IPD, pCAP surveillance (bacteremic and non-bacteremic) is important as their trends may differ over time. With insufficient herd protection from PCV13 childhood immunization, or use of PPV23 in adults, this study supports direct adult immunization with PCV13 or higher valency conjugate vaccines to reduce the residual burden of pCAP and IPD.
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