Abstract Background and Aim
There is limited data on the rate of new or recurrent cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a history of prior or current malignancy who are initiated on biologic therapies. Furthermore, there is no data on this topic in patients using ustekinumab.
The retrospective study included 341 patients with IBD and a history of cancer who were subsequently treated with vedolizumab (VDZ;
n= 34), ustekinumab (USK; n= 27), tumor necrosis factor α antagonists (anti‐TNF; n= 99), or had no immunosuppressive therapy (control; n= 181). Cox proportional hazard models were developed to determine the independent effect of post‐cancer immunosuppressive treatment on the occurrence of incident cancer. Results
Over a median of 5.2 person‐years of follow up, cancer recurrence occurred in only one patient on anti‐TNF, while new cancers developed in one patient on VDZ, three patients on USK, and six patients on anti‐TNF, corresponding to cancer rates of 0.4, 1.8, and 0.7 per 100 person‐years, respectively. The rate of incident cancer in control patients was 2.4 per 100 person‐years and included 18 new and 9 recurrent cancers. Compared with controls, a stepwise Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for significant covariates found no increased risk of incident cancer in patients receiving post‐malignancy treatment with USK (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25–3.03), VDZ (HR 0.18; 95% CI 0.03–1.35), or anti‐TNF (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.20–1.12).
Use of biologic therapy in IBD patients with a previous history of malignancy was not associated with an increased risk of new or recurrent cancer.