- Oncolytic virotherapies have shown excellent promise in a variety of cancers by promoting antitumor immunity. However, the effects of oncolytic virus-mediated type I interferon (IFN-I) production on antitumor immunity remain unclear. Recent reports have highlighted immunosuppressive functions of IFN-I in the context of checkpoint inhibitor and cell-based therapies. In this study, we demonstrate that oncolytic virus-induced IFN-I promotes the expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells and leukocytes in a IFN receptor (IFNAR)-dependent manner. Inhibition of IFN-I signaling using a monoclonal IFNAR antibody decreased IFN-I-induced PD-L1 expression and promoted tumor-specific T cell effector responses when combined with oncolytic virotherapy. Furthermore, IFNAR blockade improved therapeutic response to oncolytic virotherapy in a manner comparable with PD-L1 blockade. Our study highlights a critical immunosuppressive role of IFN-I on antitumor immunity and uses a combination strategy that improves the response to oncolytic virotherapy.