Postoperative mortality in the COVID-positive hip fracture patient, a systematic review and meta-analysis
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The extent to which concomitant COVID-19 infection increases short-term mortality following hip fracture is not fully understood. A systemic review and meta-analysis of COVID-19 positive hip fracture patients (CPHFPs) undergoing surgery was conducted to explore the association of COVID-19 with short-term mortality. Review of the literature identified reports of short-term 30-day postoperative mortality in CPHFPs. For studies including a contemporary control group of COVID-19 negative patients, odds ratios of the association between COVID-19 infection and short-term mortality were calculated. Short-term mortality and the association between COVID-19 infection and short-term mortality were meta-analyzed and stratified by hospital screening type using random effects models. Seventeen reports were identified. The short-term mortality in CPHFPs was 34% (95% C.I., 30-39%). Short-term mortality differed slightly across studies that screened all patients, 30% (95% C.I., 22-39%), compared to studies that conditionally screened patients, 36% (95% C.I., 31-42%), (P = 0.22). The association between COVID-19 infection and short-term mortality produced an odds ratio of 7.16 (95% C.I., 4.99-10.27), and this was lower for studies that screened all patients, 4.08 (95% C.I., 2.31-7.22), compared to studies that conditionally screened patients, 8.32 (95% C.I., 5.68-12.18), (P = 0.04). CPHFPs have a short-term mortality rate of 34%. The odds ratio of short-term mortality was significantly higher in studies that screened patients conditionally than in studies that screened all hip fracture patients. This suggests mortality prognostication should consider how COVID-19 infection was identified as asymptomatic patients may fare slightly better.
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