Elevated international normalized ratio is correlated with large volume transfusion in pediatric trauma patients
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BackgroundPediatric trauma patients may benefit from a balanced transfusion strategy, however, determining when to activate massive transfusion protocols remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to explore whether certain scoring systems can predict the need for large volume transfusion.
MethodsWe conducted a retrospective review of pediatric trauma patients who presented to our center and required a transfusion of packed red blood cells. Baseline laboratory and clinical data were used to calculate Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH) score and a previously reported composite of acidosis and coagulopathy.
ResultsWe identified 518 pediatric trauma patients who presented to our center between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2018. These patients were less than 18 years of age (mean 9.6 years) and had an injury severity score ranging from 1 to 50 (mean 11.3). Forty-three patients (8.3%) received a transfusion within 24 hours of presentation, ranging from 4 to 139 mL/kg of packed red blood cells (mean 23.1 mL/kg). Transfusion volume was associated with acidosis and coagulopathy scores (r = 0.37, p = 0.033) and international normalized ratio (INR) (r = 0.34, p = 0.03) but not TASH (p = 0.72). Patients with INR≥1.3 received a higher mean volume of packed red cells compared to those with normal values (34 versus 18 mL/kg, p = 0.046).
ConclusionPediatric trauma patients who undergo transfusion of packed red blood cells are likely to require large volume transfusion if their baseline INR is ≥1.3. These patients may benefit from a balanced transfusion strategy, such as utilization of massive transfusion protocols or whole blood.
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