The 12- and 24-Month Effects of Intravitreal Ranibizumab, Aflibercept, and Bevacizumab on Intraocular Pressure
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TOPIC: To investigate the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on intraocular pressure (IOP) 12 and 24 months after initiation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It is unclear whether serial anti-VEGF injections result in sustained IOP increases. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-VEGF agents with each other or with controls for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusions, or diabetic macular edema were included. Pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis examined the proportion of patients whose IOP (1) increased 5 mmHg or more from baseline on consecutive visits, (2) increased 10 mmHg or more from baseline at any visit, (3) was 21 mmHg or more on consecutive visits, (4) was 25 mmHg or more at any visit, (5) was 30 mmHg or more at any visit, (6) prompted initiation of IOP-lowering medications, or (7) increased as per the clinicians' discretion. Grading of Recommendations Assessments, Development, and Evaluations methodology informed the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Twenty-six RCTs of 12 522 eyes were included. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, ranibizumab (0.3 mg and 0.5 mg), and noninjection controls were analyzed. Eighty-three of 84 network estimates for comparisons between anti-VEGF agents demonstrated no statistically significant difference (low to moderate certainty of evidence). Ranibizumab 0.5 mg showed higher rates than bevacizumab of IOP measurements of 30 mmHg or more at 12 months (low certainty of evidence). Fifty-three of 56 network estimates for comparisons between anti-VEGF agents and controls demonstrated no statistically significant difference (low to moderate certainty of evidence). Ranibizumab 0.5 mg showed higher rates of consecutive IOP increases of 5 mmHg or more at 24 months (low certainty of evidence) and higher rates of IOP increases as per the clinicians' discretion at 12 and 24 months (low and very low certainty of evidence, respectively). The 95% credible intervals in comparisons without statistically significant effects did not rule out important clinical effects. The certainty of evidence in these comparisons is limited by imprecision. CONCLUSION: This network meta-analysis does not show any clear difference in IOP increases 12 and 24 months after treatment initiation between anti-VEGF agents and controls. Imprecision precludes definitive conclusions.
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