Fluoxetine‐induced hepatic lipid accumulation is mediated by prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 1 and is linked to elevated 15‐deoxy‐Δ
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Major depressive disorder and other neuropsychiatric disorders are often managed with long-term use of antidepressant medication. Fluoxetine, an SSRI antidepressant, is widely used as a first-line treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, fluoxetine has also been shown to increase the risk of metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fluoxetine has been shown to increase hepatic lipid accumulation in vivo and in vitro. In addition, fluoxetine has been shown to alter the production of prostaglandins which have also been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of fluoxetine exposure on the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway and lipid accumulation in a hepatic cell line (H4-II-E-C3 cells). Fluoxetine treatment increased mRNA expression of prostaglandin biosynthetic enzymes (Ptgs1, Ptgs2, and Ptgds), PPAR gamma (Pparg), and PPAR gamma downstream targets involved in fatty acid uptake (Cd36, Fatp2, and Fatp5) as well as production of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 PGJ2 a PPAR gamma ligand. The effects of fluoxetine to induce lipid accumulation were attenuated with a PTGS1 specific inhibitor (SC-560), whereas inhibition of PTGS2 had no effect. Moreover, SC-560 attenuated 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 PGJ2 production and expression of PPAR gamma downstream target genes. Taken together these results suggest that fluoxetine-induced lipid abnormalities appear to be mediated via PTGS1 and its downstream product 15d-PGJ2 and suggest a novel therapeutic target to prevent some of the adverse effects of fluoxetine treatment.
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