Amanita exitialis is a poisonous mushroom and has caused many deaths in southern China. In this study, we collected 118 fruiting bodies of A. exitialis from seven different sites in Guangdong Province in southern China and investigated their genetic relationships using 14 polymorphic molecular markers. These 14 markers grouped the 118 fruiting bodies into 20 multilocus genotypes. Among these 20 genotypes, eight were each found only once while the remaining 12 were each represented by two to 54 fruiting bodies. Interestingly, among the 12 shared genotypes, four were shared between/among local populations that were separated by as far as over 80 km, a result consistent with secondary homothallic reproduction and long-distance spore dispersal. Despite the observed gene flow, significant genetic differentiations were found among the local populations, primarily due to the over-representation of certain genotypes within individual local populations. STRUCTURE analyses revealed that the 118 fruiting bodies belonged to three genetic clusters, consistent with divergence within this species in this geographic region. Interestingly, we found an excess of heterozygous individuals at both the local and the total sample level, suggesting potential inbreeding depression and heterozygous advantage in these populations of A. exitialis. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding the life cycle, dispersal, and evolution of this poisonous mushroom.