Fecal pollution, commonly detected in untreated or less treated sewage, is associated with health risks (e.g., waterborne diseases and antibiotic resistance dissemination), ecological issues (e.g., release of harmful gases in fecal sludge composting, proliferative bacterial/algal growth due to high nutrient loads) and economy losses (e.g., reduced aqua farm harvesting). Therefore, the discharge of untreated domestic sewage to the environment and its agricultural reuse are growing concerns. The goals of fecal pollution detection include fecal waste source tracking and identifying the presence of pathogens, therefore assessing potential health risks. This review summarizes available biological fecal indicators focusing on host specificity, degree of association with fecal pollution, environmental persistence, and quantification methods in fecal pollution assessment. The development of practical tools is a crucial requirement for the implementation of mitigation strategies that may help confine the types of host-specific pathogens and determine the source control point, such as sourcing fecal wastes from point sources and nonpoint sources. Emerging multidisciplinary bacterial enumeration platforms are also discussed, including individual working mechanisms, applications, advantages, and limitations.