A device that performs its intended function only once is referred to as a one-shot device. Actual lifetimes of such kind of devices under test cannot be observed, and they are either left-censored or right-censored. In addition, one-shot devices often consist of multiple components that could cause the failure of the device. The components are coupled together in the manufacturing process or assembly, resulting in the failure modes possessing latent heterogeneity and dependence. In this paper, we develop an efficient expectation–maximization algorithm for determining the maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters, on the basis of one-shot device test data with multiple failure modes under a constant-stress accelerated life-test, with the dependent components having exponential lifetime distributions under gamma frailty that facilitates an easily understandable interpretation. The maximum likelihood estimate and confidence intervals for the mean lifetime of k-out-of-M structured one-shot device under normal operating conditions are also discussed. The performance of the proposed inferential methods is finally evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations. Three examples including Class-H failure modes data, mice data from ED01 experiment, and simulated data with four failure modes are used to illustrate the proposed inferential methods.