Management strategies and clinical outcomes in patients with inferior vena cava thrombosis: Data from GARFIELD‐VTE Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • Background

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a rare form of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The optimal treatment strategies and outcomes are unclear in patients with this presentation.

    Objective

    We aimed to compare baseline characteristics, treatment patterns and 24-month outcomes in IVC thrombosis patients (n = 100) with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT) patients (n = 7629).

    Methods

    GARFIELD-VTE is a prospective, observational registry of 10 868 patients with objectively diagnosed VTE from 415 sites in 28 countries.

    Results

    IVC thrombosis patients were younger (51.9 vs. 59.8 years), more frequently had active cancer (26.0% vs. 8.9%) or history of cancer (21.0% vs. 12.2%), and less frequently had recent trauma or surgery than LEDVT patients. IVC thrombosis was more frequently treated with parenteral anticoagulants alone (35.1% vs. 15.9%), whereas patients with LEDVT more commonly received vitamin K antagonists (32.0% vs. 25.8%) or direct oral anticoagulants (49.0% vs. 35.1%). Thrombolysis (11.0% vs. 3.6%) and surgical/mechanical interventions (4.0% vs. 1.4%) were more frequent in IVC thrombosis. At 24-months, the rate per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval) of all-cause mortality was higher in patients with IVC thrombosis than LEDVT (13.28 [8.57-20.58] vs. 4.91 [4.55-5.3]); the incidence of cancer-associated mortality was comparable as was the incidence of VTE recurrence (4.11 [1.85-9.15] vs. 4.18 [3.84-4.55]). Major bleeding was slightly higher in IVC thrombosis (2.03 [0.66-6.31] vs. 1.66 [1.45-1.89]).

    Conclusion

    In summary, IVC thrombosis patients have higher all-cause mortality rates than those with LEDVT, a finding only partly attributable to malignancy.

authors

  • Cohen, Omri
  • Ageno, Walter
  • Farjat, Alfredo E
  • Turpie, Alexander Graham Gri
  • Weitz, Jeffrey
  • Haas, Sylvia
  • Goto, Shinya
  • Goldhaber, Samuel Z
  • Angchaisuksiri, Pantep
  • Gibbs, Harry
  • MacCallum, Peter
  • Kayani, Gloria
  • Schellong, Sebastian
  • Bounameaux, Henri
  • Mantovani, Lorenzo G
  • Prandoni, Paolo
  • Kakkar, Ajay K

publication date

  • February 2022