Cell-Cell Contact during Gamma Irradiation Is Not Required to Induce a Bystander Effect in Normal Human Keratinocytes: Evidence for Release during Irradiation of a Signal Controlling Survival into the Medium
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Killing of unirradiated cells by medium from cultures of irradiated cells implies the release of a cytotoxic substance by the irradiated cells. The finding of the gamma-ray-induced cytotoxic effect exclusively in epithelial cells and not in fibroblasts suggested that tissue architecture or cell communication might be important. Normal human keratinocytes and fibroblasts and radiosensitive carcinoma cells were irradiated as single cells, microcolonies of three or four cells, or confluent monolayers. The medium was removed and filtered, and cultures which had never been irradiated were seeded at cloning densities and treated with the medium from the irradiated cells. It was found that the degree of cell-cell contact had no effect on the ability of medium from irradiated epithelial cell cultures to reduce the clonogenic survival of unirradiated cells. Cell density was the only important factor. Inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication using the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acid (PMA), which closes gap junctions, increased killing by the bystander effect when the PMA was added to epithelial cells prior to irradiation. Rescue of epithelial cells exposed to the medium from the irradiated cells was not possible even after only 30 min exposure. This suggests that a signal transduction mechanism may control death or survival by the bystander effect rather than by release of a factor which is directly cytotoxic.
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