Multiple stressor effects of radiation and metals in salmon (Salmo salar)
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These experiments were designed to look at the cellular effects in key organs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure in vivo to radiation and subtoxic levels of aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd), alone or in combination. Salmon (25g) were exposed to a single 0.5Gy dose of gamma-irradiation in water containing Cd, Al or Cd+Al. Three fish per group were sacrificed after 1h and the liver, pronephros, fin and gill of each was dissected. Small explants of each tissue were set up. After 2 days, the culture medium was harvested and filtered then placed on a reporter cell line for determination of stress signal activity (bystander effects). Radiation in combination with Cd and/or Al, caused bystander effects in tissues harvested from in vivo exposed salmon. The effects vary between different organs and are not consistently additive or synergistic for a given treatment. Tissue type appears to be critical. Liver cultures produce a toxic factor which is lethal to reporter cells, and therefore no liver data could be obtained. It is hoped that this stress signal response will prove to be a useful indicator of environmental stress in species inhabiting aquatic ecosystems.
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