Prevalence of Gender Dysphoria in Southern Brazil: A Retrospective Study Journal Articles uri icon

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  • To ensure that public health services provide comprehensive and inclusive health care to the general population, it is important for countries to estimate how many of their citizens experience gender dysphoria and wish to receive specialized hormone treatment or gender-affirming surgery. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of individuals with gender dysphoria seeking transgender health care in a public teaching hospital in southern Brazil. In this retrospective follow-up study, we analyzed the medical records and sociodemographic data of individuals aged > 15 years living in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, that enrolled in a specialized program to receive hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgery between 2000 and 2018. This study is the first to attempt estimating the prevalence of gender dysphoria in Rio Grande do Sul; it describes novel data on the clinical profile of individuals with gender dysphoria treated in a public hospital specialized in providing transgender health care. Prevalence estimates were calculated based on statewide annual population data in the study period. Of 934 identified individuals, 776 (601 trans women and 175 trans men) were included in this study. The overall prevalence of individuals with gender dysphoria was 9.3 per 100,000 individuals (95% CI: 8.6 to 9.8). Meanwhile, there were 15 trans women per 100,000 people (95% CI: 14 to 16) and 4.1 trans men per 100,000 people (95% CI: 3.5 to 4.8). There was a progressive increase in the number of people seeking hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgery during the study period. Future research is needed to determine the size of the trans population in other regions of Brazil and to expand the knowledge regarding gender dysphoria to allow for the development of effective public policies for people with gender dysphoria.


  • Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso
  • Salati, Leonardo Romeira
  • Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses
  • Schwarz, Karine
  • Schneider, Maiko
  • Soll, Bianca Borba Machado
  • Costa, Angelo Brandelli
  • Guadagnin, Fernanda
  • Hirakata, Vânia Naomi
  • Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

publication date

  • November 2021