Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat, invasive infection from multi-drug resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) pathogens is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of MDRGN bacteremia in Canada is rising, and pediatric data is limited.
This retrospective chart review of paediatric patients with gram negative bacteremia in a multicenter PICNIC database (n=7 centers) from 2013 to 2017. MDRGN was defined as enterobacteriaceae that were resistant to third generation cephalosporins (including ESBL, CPE). Ethics approval was obtained at all sites, and data was entered into a secure REDCAP database, descriptive statistics are described herein.
Of the 676 bacteremia patients in the database, 214 (31.7%) were gram negative pathogens. E. coli was the most frequent pathogen (59.8%, of which 22 of 128 were MDR), followed by Klebsiella (31.8%, of which 9 of 68 were MDR). Of the 31 MDRGNs, 19 were ESBL, 1 was a CPE, and 11 were nonspecific mechanisms of resistance. There were no multidrug resistant Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, or Acinetobacter. The majority of patient were less than 3 months of age (59.3%) and were male (58.8%). The majority had an underlying comorbid condition; hematoncologic diagnosis accounting for 14.5%. Length of stay varied from 1 to 742 days (mean 72, standard deviation 88). 11% required admission to ICU, 10% required removal of a intravascular catheter, 7% required a change in ventilation status, 2% requiring procedural source control, and there was an 8% mortality rate. Treatment duration greater than 14 days occurred in 123 patients (61% of patients).
This preliminary analysis of a multicenter review of pediatric gram negative bacteremias demonstrates a higher risk in neonates with comorbid conditions. A surprisingly prolonged treatment duration of greater than 14 days occurred in the majority of patients. Further analysis to assess factors associated with prolonged treatment durations, MDR infection, and complications is required. Gram negative bacteremia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients.
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