Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the gradual loss of renal function and is a major public health concern. Risk factors for CKD include hypertension and proteinuria, both of which are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress-induced TDAG51 protein expression is increased at an early time point in mice with CKD. Based on these findings, wild-type and TDAG51 knock-out (TDKO) mice were used in an angiotensin II/deoxycorticosterone acetate/salt model of CKD. Both wild-type and TDKO mice developed hypertension, increased proteinuria and albuminuria, glomerular injury, and tubular damage. However, TDKO mice were protected from apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis. Human proximal tubular cells were used to demonstrate that TDAG51 expression induces apoptosis through a CHOP-dependent mechanism. Further, a mouse model of intrinsic acute kidney injury demonstrated that CHOP is required for ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Renal fibroblasts were used to demonstrate that TGF-β induces collagen production through an IRE1-dependent mechanism; cells treated with a TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitor prevented XBP1 splicing, a downstream consequence of IRE1 activation. Interestingly, TDKO mice express significantly less TGF-β receptor 1, thus, preventing TGF-β-mediated XBP1 splicing. In conclusion, TDAG51 induces apoptosis in the kidney through a CHOP-dependent mechanism, while contributing to renal interstitial fibrosis through a TGF-β-IRE1-XBP1 pathway.