- Nurses have a leading role in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation (WMV) given their constant presence and their continuous monitoring. To promote proper WMV, nurses must exercise autonomy and be involved in decision-making. However, in certain care contexts, there is little involvement of nurses. The purpose of this text is to establish the characteristics of the concept of autonomous decision-making applied to nursing during WMV. An analysis of this concept was carried out according to the evolutionary method of Rodgers. The identification of the attributes, antecedents, and consequences made it possible to note ambiguity in the definition of this concept. Nurses use autonomous decision-making for the execution of assigned tasks and when they make decisions according to a pre-prescribed decision-making algorithm. Significant foundations for the decision-making autonomy of critical care nurses during WMV emerged from this analysis : scope of practice, in-depth knowledge of the patient, and commitment to the success of WMV. Participation in interdependent decision-making allows nurses to bring the patient’s perspective into decisions. Avenues of reflection have also emerged, including decisions based on evidence to provide new avenues for autonomous decision-making.