- 1. Although a range of factors can contribute to urinary incontinence in long-term care residents, it is more closely associated with a decline in both cognitive and functional status. 2. Although all subjects had to be cognitively impaired to participate in the study, the incontinent group had a significantly lower mean score on the mental status examination than did the continent group. 3. Incontinent subjects were more dependent in activities of daily living and took significantly longer to carry out functional tasks specifically related to toileting. 4. Urinary incontinence was strongly associated with a history of urinary tract infections, positive urine cultures, epididymitis, hematuria, and fecal incontinence. Medical diagnosis, medications, and affective status were not associated with the problem.