Factors associated with leisure-time physical activity participation among individuals with spinal cord injury who ambulate
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to employ the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to identify behaviour change factors related to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in spinal cord injury (SCI) ambulators. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed. Among 43 SCI ambulators, the TDF behaviour change factors were assessed, along with the duration, types, and intensities of LTPA performed over the previous week. RESULTS: The TDF behaviour change factors identified as barriers to LTPA included: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, coping planning, and goal conflict. Approximately 71.81 mins/day (SD = 75.41) was spent doing LTPA. Participants reported aerobic and resistance training activities, along with several other types of LTPA (e.g., rock climbing). Coping planning, action planning, goal conflict, and skills explained significant variance in time spent on LTPA (R2adjusted = 0.259, p < 0.01), but only action planning uniquely predicted LTPA. CONCLUSIONS: Greater use of coping and action planning, lower levels of goal conflict and stronger skills were associated with greater participation in LTPA. These factors will be targeted for a future LTPA-enhancing intervention for SCI ambulators, informed by behaviour change theory. SCI ambulators participate in a surprisingly wide range of LTPA. Rehabilitation specialists can use this list to suggest activities for patients with SCI who ambulate.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONBarriers to leisure-time physical activity for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who ambulate include lack of knowledge, weak beliefs about capabilities, lack of coping planning, and high goal conflict.Physical activity interventions for individuals with SCI who ambulate should include action and coping planning, goal conflict, and skills.Physical activity interventions should be created systematically using behaviour change theory and involvement of stakeholders throughout the development process.Practitioners can promote skills training in adapted activities like gardening, cycling, and rock-climbing for ambulators with SCI.
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