Cultural validation and language translation of the scientific SCI exercise guidelines for use in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand Academic Article uri icon

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  • CONTEXT: Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To culturally validate and translate the Scientific Exercise Guidelines for Adults with Spinal Cord Injury (SEG-SCI) for use in four Asian countries. DESIGN: Systematic Review. PARTICIPANTS: N/A. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify all published English- and local-language studies conducted in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand, testing the effects of exercise training interventions on fitness and cardiometabolic health in adults with acute or chronic SCI. Protocols and results from high-quality controlled studies were compared with the SEG-SCI. Forward and backward translation processes were used to translate the guidelines into Bahasa Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Thai languages. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the review criteria. At least one study from each country implemented exercise prescriptions that met or exceeded the SEG-SCI. Two were controlled studies. In those two studies, relative to control conditions, participants in exercise conditions achieved significant improvements in fitness or cardiometabolic health outcomes only when the exercise intervention protocol met or exceeded the SEG-SCI. During the language translation processes, end-users confirmed that SEG-SCI language and terminology were clear. CONCLUSION: Clinical researchers in Indonesia, Japan, Korea and Thailand have implemented exercise protocols that meet or exceed the SCI-SEG. Results of high-quality studies align with the SEG-SCI recommendations. Based on this evidence, we recommend that the SEG-SCI be adopted in these countries. The cultural validation and translation of the SEG-SCI is an important step towards establishing consistent SCI exercise prescriptions in research, clinical and community settings around the world.


  • Mikami, Yukio
  • Tinduh, Damayanti
  • Lee, KunHo
  • Chotiyarnwong, Chayaporn
  • van der Scheer, Jan W
  • Jung, Kyung Su
  • Shinohara, Hiroshi
  • Narasinta, Inggar
  • Yoon, Seung Hyun
  • Kanjanapanang, Napatpaphan
  • Sakai, Takafumi
  • Kusumawardhani, Martha K
  • Park, Jinho
  • Prachgosin, Pannika
  • Obata, Futoshi
  • Utami, Ditaruni Asrina
  • Laohasinnarong, Phairin
  • Wardhani, Indrayuni Lukitra
  • Limprasert, Siraprapa
  • Tajima, Fumihiro
  • Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L
  • Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

publication date

  • November 2, 2022