Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Disease: The Challenge of Moving From Promise to Realization
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Pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular medicine brings the potential for personalized therapeutic strategies that improve efficacy and reduce harm. Studies evaluating the impact of genetic variation on pharmacologic effects have been undertaken for most major cardiovascular drugs, including antithrombotic agents, β-adrenergic receptor blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Across these drug classes, many polymorphisms associated with pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, or surrogate outcomes have been identified. However, their impact on clinical outcomes and their ability to improve clinical practice remains unclear. This review will examine the current clinical evidence supporting pharmacogenetic testing in cardiovascular medicine, provide clinical guidance based on the current evidence, and identify further steps needed to determine the utility of pharmacogenetics in cardiovascular care.
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