Intestinal bacteria have diverse and complex influence on their host. Evidence is accumulating that this may be mediated in part by bacterial extracellular membrane vesicles (MV), nanometer-sized particles important for intercellular communication. Little is known about the composition of MV from gram-positive beneficial bacteria nor how they interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Here we demonstrate that MV from
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusJB-1 are endocytosed in a likely clathrin-dependent manner by both mouse and human IEC in vitro and by mouse IEC in vivo. We further show that JB-1 MV contain lipoteichoic acid (LTA) that activates Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and induces immunoregulatory interleukin-10 expression by dendritic cells in an internalization-dependent manner. By contrast, neither LTA nor TLR2 appear to be required for JB-1 MV endocytosis by IEC. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which bacterial MV can influence host physiology and suggest one potential route for beneficial influence of certain bacteria and probiotics.